This documented briefing summarizes the results of RAND's logistics research and discusses its implications for reforming DoD logistics. The briefing illustrates the need for DoD logistics to improve along multiple dimensions of performance, cites private-sector implementations of process improvement that have led to higher performance, and describes ongoing process-improvement efforts in DoD logistics. The briefing then presents a conceptual framework for developing and implementing reform efforts that emphasizes two roles for DoD logistics management in achieving improved process performance. First, all levels of management must work to improve the performance of the providers of logistics processes. This can be done both by establishing critical success factors and by eliminating inhibitors and alleviating constraints to high performance. Second, high-level DoD managers, while aiding and monitoring these improvement efforts, must work to identify and establish more efficient and effective governance structures for providing DoD logistics. By successfully performing these two roles, DoD logistics managers can successfully reform the logistics system, achieve high performance in logistics processes, and ensure the effective and efficient provision of support to U.S. military operations now and in the future.