Receipt of Preventive Health Care Services by Lesbians

Published in: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, v. 19, no. 3, 2000, p. 141-148

by Allison Diamant, Mark A. Schuster, Janet Lever

Read More

Access further information on this document at

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

BACKGROUND: The authors measured receipt of age-appropriate preventive health services by lesbians and assessed whether provider and individual characteristics, including disclosure of sexual orientation, are independently associated with receipt of these services. METHODS: A questionnaire was printed in a national biweekly gay, lesbian, and bisexual news magazine, and self-identified lesbians living in all U.S. states (N = 6935) responded to the survey. Main outcome variables were receipt of a Pap smear within the preceding 1 and 2 years and, for women aged >50, receipt of a mammogram within the past 1 and 2 years. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent had Pap smears within 1 year and 71 % within 2 years, with increasing rates among older and more educated respondents. Seventy percent of respondents aged >50 had a mammogram in the past year, and 83% within 2 years; rates did not vary significantly controlling for education. Sixty percent had disclosed their sexual orientation to their regular health care provider. Controlling for patient and provider characteristics, disclosure was independently associated with receipt of Pap smears, but not mammograms. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for providers to identify their lesbian patients' unmet needs for preventive health care. Additionally, it is important for providers to provide complete and appropriate preventive health care for their lesbian patients. Further research is needed to determine why lesbians are not receiving Pap smears at the recommended rate and whether this disparity is reflective of aspects of cervical cancer screening or indicates a more general problem with access to health care including receipt of preventive services.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.