HIV-infected Population National Data

Published in: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, v. 38, suppl. 1, Mar. 2005, p. S6-S7

Posted on on January 01, 2005

by David E. Kanouse, Rebecca L. Collins, Angela Miu, Sandra H. Berry

Read More

Access further information on this document at

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

The correct and consistent use of condoms is the most effective way for HIV-positive individuals who are sexually active to prevent the transmission of HIV infection to HIV-negative sexual partners. The use of contraceptive methods in HIV-infected populations has been little studied. Except for tubal ligation, the most effective methods of pregnancy prevention (e.g. OCs, IUD) are not widely used, even by women who do not desire children. Counseling and other interventions to help HIV-positive women prevent both HIV transmission and pregnancy may thus be of value. The strong association between condom use and attitudes suggests that for secondary prevention, clinicians and counselors should reinforce attitudes that are conducive to condom use, including beliefs that HIV transmission can occur even if an individual is on antiretroviral therapy, that the correct and consistent use of condoms is effective in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, and that HIV-positive individuals should use condoms with all sexual partners who are or could be HIV negative.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.