An Integrated Modelling Framework for Assessing Vehicular Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in Urban Areas
Published In: Progress In Air Pollution Research / Edited By S. P. Balduino, (New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2007), Chapter 8, p. 1-17
Posted on RAND.org on December 31, 2006
It has been well recognized that urban transportation and land-use are strongly interrelated and affect air quality. As such, attainment of air quality standards depends not only on the transportation system per se but also, on the distribution of population and employment. Nevertheless, the capability of existing systems to model the full chain of land-use-transportation-air quality has been rather limited. In this chapter, we propose an operational framework, called CALINE+, that estimates air pollution concentrations from traffic through endogenous simulation of land-use changes, travel demand and vehicle emissions. A framework like CALINE+ is particularly useful for long-term planning and environmental assessment because of its capability to assess air quality from vehicle emissions under several land-use and transport development scenarios in advance. To demonstrate the capabilities of CALINE+, the proposed framework is applied to estimate vehicular carbon monoxide concentrations in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada, for the years 1991 and 2001. This timeframe is particularly relevant, since it examines air quality impacts of a major freeway that was added to the road network of Hamilton in 1997. Simulation outputs include quantitative figures of traffic, congestion and emissions as well as maps of emissions and air quality, thus demonstrating the suitability of this framework for long-term planning.