This article describes the two major phenomena that shaped the overall findings of the Institute of Medicine report Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance Use Conditions and that informed its overarching recommendations. These phenomena are (1) the co-occurrence of mental health, substance use, and general health conditions; and (2) differences in the delivery of services for mental health/substance use and general health care. It describes efforts currently underway that address these differences and might significantly improve delivery and outcomes of mental health/substance use services.
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