Out-of-pocket Expenditures on Complementary Health Approaches Associated with Painful Health Conditions in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

Published in: The Journal of Pain, 2015

Posted on RAND.org on September 14, 2015

by Richard L. Nahin, Barbara J. Stussman, Patricia M. Herman

Read More

Access further information on this document at The Journal of Pain

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

National surveys suggest that millions of adults in the United States use complementary health approaches such as acupuncture, chiropractic manipulation, and herbal medicines to manage painful conditions such as arthritis, back pain and fibromyalgia. Yet, national and per person out-of-pocket (OOP) costs attributable to this condition-specific use are unknown. In the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, use of complementary health approaches, reasons for this use, and associated OOP costs were captured in a nationally representative sample of 5,467 adults. Ordinary least square regression models that controlled for co-morbid conditions were used to estimate aggregate and per person OOP costs associated with 14 painful health conditions. Individuals using complementary approaches spent a total of $14.9 billion (S.E. $0.9 billion) OOP on these approaches to manage these painful conditions. Total OOP expenditures seen in those using complementary approaches for their back pain ($8.7 billion, S.E. $0.8 billion) far outstripped that of any other condition, with the majority of these costs ($4.7 billion, S.E. $0.4 billion) resulting from visits to complementary providers. Annual condition-specific per-person OOP costs varied from a low of $568 (SE $144) for regular headaches, to a high of $895 (SE $163) for fibromyalgia. Perspective Adults in the United States spent $14.9 billion OOP on complementary health approaches (e.g., acupuncture, chiropractic, herbal medicines) to manage painful conditions including back pain ($8.7 billion). This back pain estimate is almost 1/3rd of total conventional healthcare expenditures for back pain ($30.4 billion) and 2/3rds higher than conventional OOP expenditures ($5.1 billion).

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.