An unstable Black Sea region directly threatens the peace and prosperity of the North Atlantic community, a bedrock of U.S. foreign policy since 1945. Russian aggression in the Black Sea region threatens the security of every Black Sea state and the Euro-Atlantic region as a whole, as well as global food security, international economic stability, and the viability of international legal frameworks. These represent key and important interests for the United States, as well as Europe. A comprehensive, long-term regional strategy to cope with this new reality is urgently needed. To be coherent, it must also be nested within a broader and viable transatlantic security architecture anchored in NATO. For the transatlantic community and the littoral Black Sea states, a desirable end state is a stable region anchored in the Euro-Atlantic community, where the sovereignty of Black Sea states is respected, international trade and commerce can flourish, and political resilience is enhanced. Getting there will require leadership, cooperation, investment, and persistence. Hard choices and a measure of boldness will be required.

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