Security Cooperation

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The NATO alliance served its participants well in countering the strategic threat once posed by the Soviet Union, but the rise of other regional powers and coalitions since end of the Cold War has prompted a reevaluation of existing alliances. RAND research has provided policymakers with essential information on how best to forge new defense cooperation agreements and strengthen old alliances to counter emerging security threats.

  • Flight test of a conventionally configured ground-launched cruise missile at San Nicolas Island, California, August 18, 2019, photo by Scott Howe/U.S. Department of Defense

    Report

    Challenges of Deploying Ground-Based Intermediate-Range Missiles on Allied Lands

    The United States has been hoping to develop and deploy ground-based intermediate-range missiles to the Indo-Pacific. But what is the likelihood of its treaty allies in the region—Australia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand—hosting these systems? Are there alternatives to permanent basing?

    Apr 28, 2022

  • Fourth and fifth generation aircraft from eight countries participated in a partnership flight to kick-off Blue Flag 21, over Uvda Air Base, Israel, on Oct. 17, 2021. This biennial training event is essential to building and maintaining defensive interoperability and ensuring Israel’s and other nations’ qualitative edge. Large-force exercises, like Israel-led Blue Flag, allow partner nations to build trust and develop a common understanding of the security environment, photo by Israeli Air Force

    Report

    Security Cooperation in a Strategic Competition

    Neither China nor Russia has a formal doctrine or strategy for security cooperation. How can the United States enhance its security cooperation policies and activities to its competitive advantage?

    Apr 6, 2022

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  • RAND Weekly Recap

    Blog

    Avoiding a Long War in Ukraine, Gun Violence, Migrant Surges: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on how the United States can help avoid a long war in Ukraine, responding to the gun violence crisis, limits on teachers’ instruction, and more.

    Jan 27, 2023

  • Sailors on the USS Wasp observe as the Japanese destroyer JS Yuugiri moors alongside in Okinawa, Japan, April 23, 2018, photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Daniel Barker/U.S. Navy

    Commentary

    Japan's Strategic Shift: Significant, but Implementation Hurdles May Await

    Japan's new strategic documents appear to demonstrate a recognition in Tokyo that it must do more for its own defense in the face of unprecedented security challenges. The dedication of resources, pursuit of new capabilities, and overarching commitment to a more robust defense are all significant moves that represent landmark change by one of America's key allies.

    Jan 27, 2023

  • U.S. Army soldiers and French soldiers conduct a water obstacle course at Camp Papeari Tahiti, French Polynesia, May 11, 2022, photo by Master Sgt. Shelia L. Cooper/U.S. Army

    Report

    Greater Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific Could Benefit U.S. and French Armies

    The United States and France already share objectives in the Indo-Pacific. They could cooperate further to increase dialogue and information-sharing, engage in more combined partnering with other countries, and broaden their participation in exercises and training in the region.

    Jan 25, 2023

  • Ukrainian servicemen are seen near the frontline in Soledar, Donetsk region, Ukraine, January 23, 2023, photo by Oleksandr Ratushniak/Reuters

    Report

    Avoiding a Long War in Ukraine

    The United States has a strong interest in avoiding a long war in Ukraine. Although Washington cannot alone determine the war's duration, it can take steps to make an eventual negotiated peace more likely.

    Jan 25, 2023

  • Report

    Report

    The Future of the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces: Lessons from Historical Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Efforts

    This report analyzes historic cases of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration to inform present U.S. policy on Iraq's Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), who represent a threat to both Iraqi sovereignty and U.S. policy interests.

    Jan 24, 2023

  • A giant yellow cone looms over naval personnel

    Report

    International Basic Research Collaboration at DoD

    Research is becoming increasingly global. But concerns are growing that the research strength and practices of China and other U.S. competitors may threaten America's position. With this in mind, how does the U.S. Department of Defense approach international basic research collaboration? And how could DoD improve how it uses IBRC?

    Jan 23, 2023

  • Soldiers release gasoline canisters on the Tamsui river simulating countering a Chinese invasion during asymmetric warfare drills in Taipei, Taiwan, July 19, 2022, photo by Ann Wang/Reuters

    Commentary

    'Strategic Ambiguity' May Have U.S. and Taiwan Trapped in a Prisoner's Dilemma

    For its proponents, the idea of strategic ambiguity seems to have become an end in itself that has not adapted, and logically cannot adapt to the disruptive growth in Beijing's military power. The conditions under which the policy worked seem to have evaporated with China's rise. Strategic clarity may offer a way out of this dilemma.

    Jan 18, 2023

  • Ukrainian artillerymen who destroyed columns of Russian equipment near Kyiv stand on defense of the Zaporizhzhia Region, southeastern Ukraine, December 16, 2022, photo by Dmytro Smoliyenko/Reuters Connect

    Commentary

    How the War in Ukraine Could End Sooner Than Expected

    There are predictions aplenty that Russia's war on Ukraine will persist. But it could also end soon. Kremlin regime change, a Russian army collapse, or a Ukrainian win are possible. None of these contingencies should be ruled out.

    Jan 17, 2023

  • Vietnam's Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh, South Korea's President Yoon Suk-yeol, and Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen at the ASEAN summit in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, November 11, 2022, photo by Cindy Liu/Reuters

    Commentary

    What's Korean About South Korea's Indo-Pacific Strategy?

    The Korean Indo-Pacific Strategy may not be a sign of South Korea pivoting or leaning toward the United States over China. That conclusion could present a false dichotomy.

    Jan 11, 2023

  • U.S. President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Antony Blinken attend the ASEAN summit in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, November 12, 2022, photo by Cindy Liu/Reuters

    Commentary

    Biden's Southeast Asia Policy Improves in Second Year, but Still Much to Do

    In 2022, the Biden administration stepped up its game in Southeast Asia by showing up in person, clarifying its approach in key strategy documents, and boosting cooperation. But one obvious problem that remains is that it still has no real economic strategy to counter China in the region.

    Jan 10, 2023

  • RAND Weekly Recap

    Blog

    A Potential Russian Attack on NATO, China in the Arctic, Inflation: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on how the West might respond in the case of a limited Russian attack on NATO, what China's Arctic ambitions mean to the United States, how inflation affects middle-class households, and more.

    Jan 6, 2023

  • North Korean leader Kim Jong-un conducts a ground test of a high-thrust, solid-fuel engine at the Sohae Satellite Launch Station in Cholsan in North Pyongan Province, North Korea, December 15, 2922, photo by KCNA/Pool/Latin America News Agency via Reuters

    Commentary

    Standing Up to Kim Jong-un's Divide-and-Conquer Strategy

    Kim Jong-un is frightened by even the current modest flow of information into the North. He may be prepared to reduce his provocations if those threats lead to the further spread of outside information in the North. At the very least, the ROK and the United States could try such efforts.

    Jan 6, 2023

  • A worker installs Ukrainian and U.S. flags along Pennsylvania Avenue ahead of a visit by Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, Washington, D.C., December 21, 2022, photo by Kevin Lamarque/Reuters

    Commentary

    The Myth of America's Ukraine Fatigue

    Perceptions that the United States has “Ukraine fatigue” may be more myth than reality. It could be years before any declines in the American public's support for Ukraine actually result in a change of policy.

    Jan 3, 2023

  • Kim Jong-un conducts a ground test of a high-thrust, solid-fuel engine at the Sohae Satellite Launch Station in Cholsan, North Korea, December 16, 2022, photo by KCNA/Pool/Latin America News Agency via Reuters

    Commentary

    Japanese 'Counterstrike' May Be Good for ROK Security

    Fully coordinated, the South Korean Kill Chain and Japanese counterstrike capability could be more effective in stopping North Korea from causing damage. And they could be more likely to deter Kim Jong-un, as Pyongyang recognizes that its efforts to militarily dominate the ROK are unlikely to succeed.

    Dec 28, 2022

  • (l-r) Moderator Jamie Morin and panelists Bruce McClintock, Debra Emmons, and Marin Halper at the West Coast Aerospace Forum in Santa Monica, California, December 2, 2022, photo by Diane Baldwin/RAND Corporation

    Blog

    Can the War in Ukraine Help the United States Address Security Concerns in the Indo-Pacific?

    Even as the Russian military continues to struggle in Ukraine, Air Force leaders and top national security experts at the 2022 West Coast Aerospace Forum warned not to expect similar outcomes in a potential conflict with China. The 7th annual event focused on applying lessons learned from Russia's invasion of Ukraine to the security challenges in the Indo-Pacific.

    Dec 14, 2022

  • An Algerian corvette fires a Chinese-made anti-ship missile, photo by Hakim Djebbour/Wikimedia (CC by 4.0)

    Tool

    Mapping Chinese and Russian Military and Security Exports to Africa

    Military weapons exports and private military and security contractors are important tools for projecting a country's influence around the world. How have China and Russia employed these tools across Africa in recent years?

    Dec 13, 2022

  • Chinese tanks at the Army Institute in Kampong Speu province, Cambodia, March 12, 2015, photo by Pring Samrang/Reuters

    Commentary

    How China Is Building Influence Through Arms Sales

    China may be using arms sales to strengthen alliances around the South China Sea and counter the United States' regional alliances. Beijing's security relationships around the South China Sea could be a harbinger of what it might replicate in Africa and possibly Latin America.

    Dec 9, 2022

  • Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi shakes hands with Russian President Vladimir Putin during their meeting at Hyderabad House in New Delhi, India, December 6, 2021, photo by Sonu Mehta/Hindustan Times/Sipa USA via Reuters

    Commentary

    India Upholds the Rules-Based Liberal International Order—But in Its Own Way

    Contrary to continued U.S. questions about the degree of New Delhi's commitment to the liberal international order, India has shown that it is committed in its own, sometimes limited way. Of course, securing Indian national interests will always be paramount. U.S. policymakers might recognize that any additional pressure is likely to be counterproductive.

    Dec 9, 2022

  • A People's Liberation Army (PLA) delegation (right) visits a United States military facility

    Report

    Implications of a Global People's Liberation Army: Historical Lessons for Responding to China's Long-Term Global Basing Ambitions

    The authors examine three case studies among the United States' competitors to help anticipate what Chinese overseas access and basing might look like in the 2030s while assessing U.S. risks and opportunities posed by Chinese military expansion.

    Dec 8, 2022

  • The foundation stone laying ceremony of the support base of China's PLA in Djibouti, August 1, 2017, photo by Xinhua/Alamy

    Report

    What Are China's Global Basing Ambitions?

    China appears likely to seek military access and basing in its immediate vicinity and in the Middle East, but parts of Africa and the Indo-Pacific are also of interest. The United States should carefully prioritize where to resist Chinese access and basing and where to reinforce U.S. relationships.

    Dec 8, 2022