This issue paper examines the state of administrative control over Russian military R&D in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. In contrast to the devolution of power experienced in other political, social, and economic spheres, there are strong indications of critical limits to regionalization and of emerging trends toward the recentralization of federal authority over Russian military R&D. In both the short and long terms, the federal government has the greatest stake in continued support of military R&D. More significantly, it enjoys economies of scale in providing key financial and material resources, and in coordinating extraregional ties with potential markets and the broader scientific community that are vital to the sponsorship of the military R&D establishment. Nevertheless, because of resource stringency of its own and incoherence in terms of policy design and implementation, the Russian federal government's ability to parlay this recentralization into an effective and aggressive military R&D effort remains suspect.