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Many aspects of globalization now combine to increase the dangers of a variety of transnational threats from weapons proliferation, cyber attacks, ethnic violence, environmental degradation, and the spread of infectious diseases. A serious analytic effort is needed to discover how access to the critical knowledge, materials, and technologies can be denied to those bent on acquiring weapons of mass destruction. Global technological and economic developments offer opportunities to promote economic prosperity, eradicate disease, and advance political freedom, which in turn hold out the possibility of actually ameliorating the transnational threats and indirectly some of their underlying causes. But success depends critically on stakeholders--governments, multilateral institutions, private businesses, and NGOs--pursuing them not only globally but also collectively, and with sufficient means. More-effective collective decisionmaking processes are needed in the political realm. The decisions of such groups as the G-8 should involve concrete measures and specific implementing guidance and enforcement mechanisms.

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