The paper curtain : employer sanctions' implementation, impact, and reform
The papers in this volume address the related issues of the implementation, impacts, and reform of employer sanctions and selected programs authorized by the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), which was intended to curb illegal immigration. When IRCA was passed, legislators knew that some of the law's components were experimental and would have to be monitored. The papers collected here examine the impact of IRCA and assess more broadly the unfolding gatekeeping function of U.S. immigration policies and their demographic, economic, and social effects. Several conclusions emerge: (1) the number of undocumented migrants across the southern border appears to be increasing again after a sharp decline following IRCA's enactment; (2) jobs in agriculture appear to have remained a magnet for undocumented migrants, as worker turnover has increased and the number of farm labor contractors who serve as intermediaries between farmers and workers has expanded; (3) the introduction of employer sanctions appears to have increased the incidence of national origin and citizenship discrimination; and (4) new enforcement missions assigned the Immigration and Naturalization Service and continuing competition within the INS for enforcement resources are threatening the long-term effectiveness of sanctions.