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NATO's Mediterranean Initiative is acquiring new significance with changes in the strategic environment and changes in NATO itself. Greater attention is being devoted to developments on the southern periphery of the Alliance. Members of the NATO Dialogue will have a shared stake in addressing new security challenges, many of which are transregional and require cooperative strategies in response. A longer-term vision is essential to further development. Policy recommendations include reinforcement of the nongovernmental dimensions of the Dialogue, establishment of a region-specific agenda that can include defense training and exercises, and increasing resources devoted to the Initiative commensurate with the region's growing importance. Individual Dialogue members should be free to engage, at their own pace, in more ambitious cooperation with NATO.

The research described in this report was performed under the auspices of RAND's National Security Research Division.

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