State-Level Changes in Energy Intensity and Their National Implications

by Mark A. Bernstein, Katya Fonkych, Sam Loeb, David S. Loughran


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The National Energy Policy released by the Bush Administration in 2001 calls for continued reductions in U.S. energy intensity, typically defined as energy consumption per dollar of gross economic output. The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy asked RAND to examine changes in energy intensity as part of a larger effort to identify state-level factors that may contribute to efficient energy use nationwide. The authors examined changes in energy intensity from 1977 through 1999 across the 48 contiguous states and in each of the states' residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation energy-consuming sectors. They identified a number of factors that may explain why some states had different patterns of energy intensity than others: energy prices; the mix of industrial and commercial activities; production capacity utilization; capital investment and new construction; population and demographics; climate; technological innovation; and the energy policies of national, state, and local governments. The results from this study suggests that opportunities may exist for the Department of Energy to increase its involvement in helping states to share information and to provide guidance on state-level actions that are effective in reducing energy intensity.

Table of Contents

  • Summary PDF

  • Preface

    All Prefatory Materials PDF

  • Chapter One

    Introduction PDF

  • Chapter Two

    State-Level Trends in Energy Intensity PDF

  • Chapter Three

    Factors Affecting Energy Intensity PDF

  • Chapter Four

    Modeling Energy Intensity PDF

  • Chapter Five

    Impact of Factors and Common Effects on Energy Intensity PDF

  • Chapter Six

    Applying the Analysis Results to Examples of Energy Intensity Outcomes PDF

  • Chapter Seven

    Ranking the States with the Greatest Energy Intensity and Residual Effect Reductions PDF

  • Chapter Eight

    What Would Happen to U.S. Energy Intensity If All States Replicated the Top-Ranked or Bottomranked States? PDF

  • Chapter Nine

    Conclusions and Thoughts for Future Analysis PDF

  • Appendix A

    Data Sources PDF

  • Appendix B

    Regression Analysis Results PDF

  • Appendix C

    Methodology for Calculating the What-Ifs in Chapter 8 PDF

  • Appendix D

    Detailed Results of Energy Intensity Analysis PDF

  • Supplemental

    Bibliography PDF

The research described in this report was conducted by RAND's Science and Technology Policy Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation monograph report series. The monograph/report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1993 to 2003. RAND monograph/reports presented major research findings that addressed the challenges facing the public and private sectors. They included executive summaries, technical documentation, and synthesis pieces.

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