On October 4, 1992 an El Al freight aircraft crashed into an apartment complex near Amsterdam after taking off from Schiphol airport. This disaster generated sufficient public arousal that the Netherlands government deemed it necessary to make a careful reexamination of the external risks of the airport prior to proceeding with expansion plans. RAND's European American Center was asked to do this study. A six-month survey and analysis of the safety issues performed by RAND using a multidisciplinary team of risk experts, aviation consultants, statisticians, and policy analysts. Both quantitative risk estimates and public opinions of airport risks and benefits played importantly in the analysis. Recommendations included safety management changes, safety incident tracking and better public communication. Two reports, "Airport Growth and Safety: A Study of the External Risk of Schiphol Airport and Possible Safety Enhancement Measures," and "Airport Growth and Safety, Executive Summary of the Schiphol Project," were completed under the project.