At the onset of Operation Desert Shield, U.S. authorities designated JP-8 as the single fuel for the battlefield, to be used in all ground and air vehicles. Almost immediately, however, Air Force and Army units were using other fuels, and the policy was soon abandoned. This research finds that although fuel outcomes in ODS/S were almost all positive, primarily because fuels were readily available within the theater and because the host nations provided much of the storage and distribution equipment, the performance of the U.S. units showed much room for and need of improvement. Units were not properly trained or experienced in procedures for injecting military additives into commercial fuels or for using jet fuel in ground vehicles. The preferred fuel in any future contingency will depend on many factors and will not necessarily be JP-8 or any other single fuel. Troops available for deployment to diverse areas must be trained in and ready to use alternative fuels. The weapons, vehicles, and equipment to be deployed with them must operate effectively on any of those fuels.