Groundwater Recharge with Reclaimed Water

An Epidemiologic Assessment in Los Angeles County, 1987-1991

by Elizabeth M. Sloss, Sandy A. Geschwind, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Beate R. Ritz

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An assessment of the effects on human health of reclaimed water. The assessment compares health data on cancer incidence, mortality, and cases of infectious disease in the Montebello Forebay area, which has received some reclaimed water in its water supply for almost 30 years, with a control area that received no reclaimed water. The epidemiologic study took an ecologic approach, in which the unit of analysis is a group of people, not an individual. The results of the study do not provide evidence that reclaimed water has an adverse effect on health.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One

    Introduction

  • Chapter Two

    Literature Review

  • Chapter Three

    Methods

  • Chapter Four

    Results

  • Chapter Five

    Discussion

  • Appendix A

    Methods Used to Estimate the Percentage of Reclaimed Water in Montebello Forebay Groundwater Supplies

  • Appendix B

    1990 Census Tracts in Five Exposure Areas Used in the Analyses of Cancer Incidence and Mortality Data

  • Appendix C

    1990 Census Tracts in Five Reclaimed Water Areas Used in the Analyses of Infectious Disease Data

  • Appendix D

    1990 Census Tracts in Control Area Used in the Analyses of All Health Outcomes Data

  • Appendix E

    Characteristics of Populations Living in Analysis Subareas Within Reclaimed Water and Control Areas

  • Appendix F

    Number of Cancers, Deaths, and Cases of Infectious Disease Occurring in the Reclaimed Water Areas and Control Area

  • Appendix G

    Results of Sensitivity Analyses for Cancer Incidence

  • Appendix H

    Results of Sensitivity Analyses for Mortality

  • Chapter I

    Results of Sensitivity Analyses for Infectious Disease Incidence

  • Appendix J

    Summary of Results of Sensitivity Analyses for Separate Control Area Locations

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