As part of the Los Angeles Electricity Rate Study, 931 households were observed on one of 17 time-of-use (TOU) rates that applied either five or seven days per week. An additional 337 households faced either seasonal, flat, or declining-block rates but had their use recorded continuously; they served as "control" households. The covariance analysis of TOU price effects provides strong evidence that TOU rates alter the time-of-use distributions of residential loads. It also suggests that TOU rates affect total consumption. Peak period use is reduced by peak prices, and the reduction is greater the higher the price level.
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