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The U.S. military services have devised defensive and offensive responses to terrorism: anti- and counterterrorism, respectively. This Note examines four elements needed for effective anti- and counterterrorism programs: effective intelligence programs, appropriate education and training, proper tactics and response techniques, and requisite equipment and devices. Both AT and CT forces have similar, albeit different, requirements in these four areas; these differences are discussed, as are some variances between the services' AT and CT programs. The Note concludes that terrorism may become a major form of armed conflict, and as such, will present increasingly serious challenges to the military. To counter this threat, the military must improve its intelligence functions, enhance its education and training programs, and more effectively control its limited assets by more use of joint service projects and better fiscal management.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Note series. The note was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1979 to 1993 that reported other outputs of sponsored research for general distribution.

This research in the public interest was supported by RAND, using discretionary funds made possible by the generosity of RAND's donors, the fees earned on client-funded research, and independent research and development (IR&D) funds provided by the Department of Defense.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.