This Note considers how the United States might better counter covert aggression. Among other issues, the study (1) examines the uses of terrorism, subversion, and insurgency as instruments of state policy; (2) analyzes the principal constraints on U.S. freedom of action to deter or respond to such aggression; and (3) suggests policy and operational measures that might help the United States and its allies to cope with covert aggression in the future.
Hosmer, Stephen T. and George K. Tanham, Countering Covert Aggression. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1986. https://www.rand.org/pubs/notes/N2412.html. Also available in print form.
Hosmer, Stephen T. and George K. Tanham, Countering Covert Aggression, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, N-2412-USDP, 1986. As of January 12, 2022: https://www.rand.org/pubs/notes/N2412.html