This paper presents summaries of the proceedings of the RAND/UCLA Center for Soviet Studies' fourth annual conference, April 1990. Symposium participants Alex Alexiev, Jeremy Azrael, and Robert Nurick of The RAND Corporation, and Richard Anderson of the University of California at Los Angeles discuss the growing criticism of Mikhail Gorbachev from various Soviet left- and right-wing organizations, and the balance Gorbachev must maintain between party officialdom and the population. The Soviet military establishment is described as an institution under siege as the Soviet High Command increasingly links its institutional concerns to broader issues of Gorbachev's foreign policy. Soviet national and ethnic unrest and the implications are also discussed. Moderator Abraham Becker concludes with a discussion of the Soviet economic crisis.