Soviet Union

  • U.S. President Joe Biden delivers remarks in the East Room of the White House in Washington, D.C., September 16, 2021, photo by Leah Millis/Reuters

    Commentary

    Summit Gives Biden Chance to Nudge Post-Soviet States Toward Democracy

    President Biden may invite Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine to his “summit for democracy” in December. By both praising and nudging these imperfect democracies to do more to achieve their democratic potential, Biden could give his agenda more meaning.

    Sep 20, 2021

  • A recruit from the presidential regiment waits for a ceremony to take the oath at a military base in Kiev, Ukraine, November 16, 2013, photo by Gleb Garanich/Reuters

    Commentary

    How America Can Help Re-Shape the Post-Soviet Countries

    For the post-Soviet states, development could bring better living standards and social conditions and promote more stable politics and inclusive governance. The West would make the most difference by focusing on mid-ranked states, especially those undertaking reforms.

    May 17, 2021

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin during an end-of-year videoconference with members of the Russian government at the Novo-Ogaryovo residence, December 24, 2020, photo by Mikhail Klimentyev/Reuters

    Commentary

    Arms Control Held Hostage

    President-elect Joe Biden and Russian President Vladimir Putin have wisely promised to extend the 2010 New START Treaty, which cuts long-range nuclear arms. The two leaders may also pursue a broader follow-on accord, but frigid U.S.-Russian relations could put this out of reach. Progress on arms control often comes when political winds are warmer.

    Dec 28, 2020

  • Officials wearing protective gear take body temperatures at a check point, in Marneuli near Tbilisi, Georgia, March 23, 2020, photo by Irakli Gedenidze/Reuters

    Commentary

    COVID-19 Crisis Could Spur Post-Soviet Fixes

    Much of the post-Soviet space remains afflicted with authoritarian rule, inefficient economies, corruption, and regional tensions. The COVID-19 crisis could prod countries to address key issues, but they will need help. Targeted Western aid could help willing countries make progress.

    May 8, 2020

  • Report

    Report

    Russian Assessments and Applications of the Correlation of Forces and Means

    The authors examine how Russia assesses and applies the correlation of forces and means -- the military balance between two opponents at the global, regional, and local levels -- and outline recent relevant developments in Russian military thought.

    Apr 20, 2020

  • Map depicting Russia's gray zone aggression, images by Harvepino and Serdarbayraktar/Getty Images. Design by Rick Penn-Kraus/RAND Corporation

    Report

    Understanding Russia's Hostile Measures and How to Counter Them

    Russia has used hostile measures to sow disorder, weaken democratic institutions, and undermine NATO cohesion. But it also has a long track record of strategic shortfalls and even ineptitude. Exploring opportunities to deter, prevent, and counter Russia's behavior is critical in both the gray zone and conventional war.

    Jan 7, 2020

  • U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev have a few final words after a marathon meeting to conclude their mini-summit in Reykjavik, Iceland, October 12, 1986, photo by Denis Paquin/Reuters

    Commentary

    Return of Nuclear Doomsday

    Elder statesmen are again warning of nuclear dangers. But have they risen? Maybe, but they remain only faint echoes of Cold War era risks, creating an opportunity to deliberately and carefully take steps to avoid future risks.

    Dec 12, 2019

  • Detail of the english word "democracy" highlighted and its definition from the dictionary, photo by Lobro78/Getty Images

    Commentary

    How Can the United States Support Democracies in the Former USSR?

    The West has only modest capacity to influence circumstances in most post-Soviet countries. In Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia and Moldova, however, the West has the potential to make a real difference by supporting civil society and improved governance.

    Sep 16, 2019

  • Chess pieces with U.S. and China flags superimposted on world map background

    Commentary

    Is This the Beginning of a New Cold War?

    It has become increasingly common for observers of world affairs to contend that the United States and China have either entered into or are poised to embark on a new Cold War. While the contours of a long-term contest between Washington and Beijing are undoubtedly forming, especially in the economic realm, the analogy is problematic.

    Dec 12, 2018

  • News Release

    News Release

    RAND Identifies New Strategies for Countering Russian Social Media Influence in Eastern Europe

    Russia is waging a social media campaign in the Baltics, Ukraine and nearby states to sow dissent against neighboring governments, as well as NATO and the European Union.

    Apr 12, 2018

  • A dark Russian sky with a binary code background

    Report

    How to Counter Russian Social Media Influence in Eastern Europe

    Russia uses social media in nearby states to sow dissent against neighboring governments and NATO. Options for countering the Kremlin's campaign include tracking and blocking propaganda more quickly and offering alternative content to help displace the Russian narrative.

    Apr 12, 2018

  • Margaret Mead between 1930 and 1950

    Blog

    Studying Soviets, Not Sex: Margaret Mead's Research at RAND

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead studied Russian culture and attitudes toward authority while at RAND from 1948 to 1950. To accomplish what she called “culture cracking,” Mead looked to Russian emigres, books, journals, archives, and films since the Soviet Union was inaccessible.

    Mar 7, 2018

  • Report

    Report

    Strategic Warning on NATO's Eastern Flank: Pitfalls, Prospects, and Limits

    Russian military modernization raises concerns about the Intelligence Community's (IC's) ability to warn of Russian aggression, particularly on NATO's eastern flank. Using themes from past events, the report makes recommendations to improve warning.

    Mar 7, 2018

  • Participants march on the street during Alilo, a religious procession to celebrate Orthodox Christmas in Tbilisi, Georgia, January 7, 2018

    Report

    Religion, Conflict, and Stability in the Former Soviet Union

    Religion is a visible force in the sociopolitical life of post-Soviet countries. Understanding how religion has contributed to peace or tensions in the region could inform policymakers and others working to bring stability to the former Soviet republics.

    Jan 15, 2018

  • Two U.S. Air Force B-1B Lancers deployed to Andersen Air Base, Guam, fly over the Republic of Korea Sept. 21, 2016

    Commentary

    The Rorschach Test of New Nuclear Powers: Analogies for North Korean Command and Control

    Is Pyongyang more like modern Islamabad or Soviet Moscow? The answer must draw on the expertise of scholars of civil-military relations as well as nuclear strategy. Even then analogy is only a starting point—North Korea may be more or less like previous cases, but will certainly be unique.

    Oct 6, 2017

  • View of Moscow Kremlin and Moscow River, architecture, bridge, capital, center, city, europe, european, downtown, famous, historical, kremlin, metropolis, moscow, moskva, national, old, outdoor, place, red, river, russia, russian, square, state, tradition, traditional, travel, vacation, view, tourism, tourist, sightseeing, site, destination, landmark, cityscape, attraction, water, summer, boat, embankment, tower

    Announcement

    Jeremy R. Azrael Scholarship Supports Students from Former Soviet States

    Jeremy Azrael was an expert on the Russian economy who devoted his career to promoting better understanding between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union. A scholarship in his name supports a first-year Pardee RAND Graduate School student from a former Soviet state.

    Jun 19, 2014

  • politics on the Internet

    Report

    Internet Freedom and Political Space

    The Internet has become a new battleground between governments that censor online content and those who advocate freedom to browse, post, and share information online. What are the implications of Internet freedom for state-society relations in nondemocratic regimes?

    Sep 5, 2013

  • Officer giving instructions to young Afghan soldiers

    Report

    What Can Be Learned from the Soviet Experience with Afghan Security Forces?

    An overview of Soviet efforts to improve and facilitate the training and development of Afghan security forces from 1920 to 1989 can inform U.S. and allied forces' current approaches to planning and operating with Afghan forces and overcoming cultural challenges.

    Oct 13, 2011

  • Report

    Report

    Design for an Advanced Red Agent for the RAND Strategy Assessment Center

    This report describes RAND's proposed approach for building an advanced "Red Agent" computer model to describe Soviet behavior in the context of an automated war game.

    May 1, 1993

  • Commercial Book

    Commercial Book

    Troubled Lands: The Legacy of Soviet Environmental Destruction

    During 70 years of communist rule, the former Soviet Union inflicted wide-spread environmental damage throughout Russia and the Soviet Republics in its quest for military and economic power.

    Jan 1, 1993