Soviet Union

  • Officials wearing protective gear take body temperatures at a check point, in Marneuli near Tbilisi, Georgia, March 23, 2020, photo by Irakli Gedenidze/Reuters

    Commentary

    COVID-19 Crisis Could Spur Post-Soviet Fixes

    Much of the post-Soviet space remains afflicted with authoritarian rule, inefficient economies, corruption, and regional tensions. The COVID-19 crisis could prod countries to address key issues, but they will need help. Targeted Western aid could help willing countries make progress.

    May 8, 2020

  • Report

    Russian Assessments and Applications of the Correlation of Forces and Means

    The authors examine how Russia assesses and applies the correlation of forces and means -- the military balance between two opponents at the global, regional, and local levels -- and outline recent relevant developments in Russian military thought.

    Apr 20, 2020

  • Map depicting Russia's gray zone aggression, images by Harvepino and Serdarbayraktar/Getty Images. Design by Rick Penn-Kraus/RAND Corporation

    Report

    Understanding Russia's Hostile Measures and How to Counter Them

    Russia has used hostile measures to sow disorder, weaken democratic institutions, and undermine NATO cohesion. But it also has a long track record of strategic shortfalls and even ineptitude. Exploring opportunities to deter, prevent, and counter Russia's behavior is critical in both the gray zone and conventional war.

    Jan 7, 2020

  • U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev have a few final words after a marathon meeting to conclude their mini-summit in Reykjavik, Iceland, October 12, 1986, photo by Denis Paquin/Reuters

    Commentary

    Return of Nuclear Doomsday

    Elder statesmen are again warning of nuclear dangers. But have they risen? Maybe, but they remain only faint echoes of Cold War era risks, creating an opportunity to deliberately and carefully take steps to avoid future risks.

    Dec 12, 2019

  • Detail of the english word "democracy" highlighted and its definition from the dictionary, photo by Lobro78/Getty Images

    Commentary

    How Can the United States Support Democracies in the Former USSR?

    The West has only modest capacity to influence circumstances in most post-Soviet countries. In Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia and Moldova, however, the West has the potential to make a real difference by supporting civil society and improved governance.

    Sep 16, 2019

  • Chess pieces with U.S. and China flags superimposted on world map background

    Commentary

    Is This the Beginning of a New Cold War?

    It has become increasingly common for observers of world affairs to contend that the United States and China have either entered into or are poised to embark on a new Cold War. While the contours of a long-term contest between Washington and Beijing are undoubtedly forming, especially in the economic realm, the analogy is problematic.

    Dec 12, 2018

  • News Release

    RAND Identifies New Strategies for Countering Russian Social Media Influence in Eastern Europe

    Russia is waging a social media campaign in the Baltics, Ukraine and nearby states to sow dissent against neighboring governments, as well as NATO and the European Union.

    Apr 12, 2018

  • A dark Russian sky with a binary code background

    Report

    How to Counter Russian Social Media Influence in Eastern Europe

    Russia uses social media in nearby states to sow dissent against neighboring governments and NATO. Options for countering the Kremlin's campaign include tracking and blocking propaganda more quickly and offering alternative content to help displace the Russian narrative.

    Apr 12, 2018

  • Margaret Mead between 1930 and 1950

    Blog

    Studying Soviets, Not Sex: Margaret Mead's Research at RAND

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead studied Russian culture and attitudes toward authority while at RAND from 1948 to 1950. To accomplish what she called “culture cracking,” Mead looked to Russian emigres, books, journals, archives, and films since the Soviet Union was inaccessible.

    Mar 7, 2018

  • Report

    Strategic Warning on NATO's Eastern Flank: Pitfalls, Prospects, and Limits

    Russian military modernization raises concerns about the Intelligence Community's (IC's) ability to warn of Russian aggression, particularly on NATO's eastern flank. Using themes from past events, the report makes recommendations to improve warning.

    Mar 7, 2018

  • Participants march on the street during Alilo, a religious procession to celebrate Orthodox Christmas in Tbilisi, Georgia, January 7, 2018

    Report

    Religion, Conflict, and Stability in the Former Soviet Union

    Religion is a visible force in the sociopolitical life of post-Soviet countries. Understanding how religion has contributed to peace or tensions in the region could inform policymakers and others working to bring stability to the former Soviet republics.

    Jan 15, 2018

  • Two U.S. Air Force B-1B Lancers deployed to Andersen Air Base, Guam, fly over the Republic of Korea Sept. 21, 2016

    Commentary

    The Rorschach Test of New Nuclear Powers: Analogies for North Korean Command and Control

    Is Pyongyang more like modern Islamabad or Soviet Moscow? The answer must draw on the expertise of scholars of civil-military relations as well as nuclear strategy. Even then analogy is only a starting point—North Korea may be more or less like previous cases, but will certainly be unique.

    Oct 6, 2017

  • View of Moscow Kremlin and Moscow River, architecture, bridge, capital, center, city, europe, european, downtown, famous, historical, kremlin, metropolis, moscow, moskva, national, old, outdoor, place, red, river, russia, russian, square, state, tradition, traditional, travel, vacation, view, tourism, tourist, sightseeing, site, destination, landmark, cityscape, attraction, water, summer, boat, embankment, tower

    Announcement

    Jeremy R. Azrael Scholarship Supports Students from Former Soviet States

    Jeremy Azrael was an expert on the Russian economy who devoted his career to promoting better understanding between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union. A scholarship in his name supports a first-year Pardee RAND Graduate School student from a former Soviet state.

    Jun 19, 2014

  • politics on the Internet

    Report

    Internet Freedom and Political Space

    The Internet has become a new battleground between governments that censor online content and those who advocate freedom to browse, post, and share information online. What are the implications of Internet freedom for state-society relations in nondemocratic regimes?

    Sep 5, 2013

  • Officer giving instructions to young Afghan soldiers

    Report

    What Can Be Learned from the Soviet Experience with Afghan Security Forces?

    An overview of Soviet efforts to improve and facilitate the training and development of Afghan security forces from 1920 to 1989 can inform U.S. and allied forces' current approaches to planning and operating with Afghan forces and overcoming cultural challenges.

    Oct 13, 2011

  • Commercial Book

    Troubled Lands: The Legacy of Soviet Environmental Destruction

    During 70 years of communist rule, the former Soviet Union inflicted wide-spread environmental damage throughout Russia and the Soviet Republics in its quest for military and economic power.

    Jan 1, 1993

  • Report

    Ethiopia — Contrasts and Contradictions

    This paper, based on a presentation at the Georgetown University Intercultural Center, Washington, D.C., in September 1987, summarizes impressions of Ethiopia gained during a three-week visit in March 1987.

    Oct 1, 1987

  • Research Brief

    Moscow's Lessons from the 1982 Lebanon Air War

    Summary of research that reviews Soviet impressions of Israeli air operations during the 1982 Lebanon war.

    Jan 1, 1984

  • Report

    Moscow's Lessons from the 1982 Lebanon Air War

    Reviews Soviet impressions of Israeli air operations during the 1982 Lebanon war. It evaluates a 1983 article published in Soviet Air Force Monthly that assesses the implications of the Israeli-Syrian air battles.

    Jan 1, 1984

  • Report

    Selective Nuclear Options in American and Soviet Strategic Policy

    Whatever behavior the Soviets might pursue in a nuclear crisis, the desirability of maintaining a U.S. selective options strategy need not hinge exclusively on the course and outcome of future developments in Soviet nuclear planning.

    Jan 1, 1976