Soviet Union

  • Detail of the english word "democracy" highlighted and its definition from the dictionary, photo by Lobro78/Getty Images


    How Can the United States Support Democracies in the Former USSR?

    The West has only modest capacity to influence circumstances in most post-Soviet countries. In Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia and Moldova, however, the West has the potential to make a real difference by supporting civil society and improved governance.

    Sep 16, 2019

  • Chess pieces with U.S. and China flags superimposted on world map background


    Is This the Beginning of a New Cold War?

    It has become increasingly common for observers of world affairs to contend that the United States and China have either entered into or are poised to embark on a new Cold War. While the contours of a long-term contest between Washington and Beijing are undoubtedly forming, especially in the economic realm, the analogy is problematic.

    Dec 12, 2018

  • News Release

    RAND Identifies New Strategies for Countering Russian Social Media Influence in Eastern Europe

    Russia is waging a social media campaign in the Baltics, Ukraine and nearby states to sow dissent against neighboring governments, as well as NATO and the European Union.

    Apr 12, 2018

  • A dark Russian sky with a binary code background


    How to Counter Russian Social Media Influence in Eastern Europe

    Russia uses social media in nearby states to sow dissent against neighboring governments and NATO. Options for countering the Kremlin's campaign include tracking and blocking propaganda more quickly and offering alternative content to help displace the Russian narrative.

    Apr 12, 2018

  • Margaret Mead between 1930 and 1950


    Studying Soviets, Not Sex: Margaret Mead's Research at RAND

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead studied Russian culture and attitudes toward authority while at RAND from 1948 to 1950. To accomplish what she called “culture cracking,” Mead looked to Russian emigres, books, journals, archives, and films since the Soviet Union was inaccessible.

    Mar 7, 2018

  • Report

    Strategic Warning on NATO's Eastern Flank: Pitfalls, Prospects, and Limits

    Russian military modernization raises concerns about the Intelligence Community's (IC's) ability to warn of Russian aggression, particularly on NATO's eastern flank. Using themes from past events, the report makes recommendations to improve warning.

    Mar 7, 2018

  • Participants march on the street during Alilo, a religious procession to celebrate Orthodox Christmas in Tbilisi, Georgia, January 7, 2018


    Religion, Conflict, and Stability in the Former Soviet Union

    Religion is a visible force in the sociopolitical life of post-Soviet countries. Understanding how religion has contributed to peace or tensions in the region could inform policymakers and others working to bring stability to the former Soviet republics.

    Jan 15, 2018

  • Two U.S. Air Force B-1B Lancers deployed to Andersen Air Base, Guam, fly over the Republic of Korea Sept. 21, 2016


    The Rorschach Test of New Nuclear Powers: Analogies for North Korean Command and Control

    Is Pyongyang more like modern Islamabad or Soviet Moscow? The answer must draw on the expertise of scholars of civil-military relations as well as nuclear strategy. Even then analogy is only a starting point—North Korea may be more or less like previous cases, but will certainly be unique.

    Oct 6, 2017

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    Jeremy R. Azrael Scholarship Supports Students from Former Soviet States

    Jeremy Azrael was an expert on the Russian economy who devoted his career to promoting better understanding between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union. A scholarship in his name supports a first-year Pardee RAND Graduate School student from a former Soviet state.

    Jun 19, 2014

  • politics on the Internet


    Internet Freedom and Political Space

    The Internet has become a new battleground between governments that censor online content and those who advocate freedom to browse, post, and share information online. What are the implications of Internet freedom for state-society relations in nondemocratic regimes?

    Sep 5, 2013

  • Officer giving instructions to young Afghan soldiers


    What Can Be Learned from the Soviet Experience with Afghan Security Forces?

    An overview of Soviet efforts to improve and facilitate the training and development of Afghan security forces from 1920 to 1989 can inform U.S. and allied forces' current approaches to planning and operating with Afghan forces and overcoming cultural challenges.

    Oct 13, 2011

  • Commercial Book

    Troubled Lands: The Legacy of Soviet Environmental Destruction

    During 70 years of communist rule, the former Soviet Union inflicted wide-spread environmental damage throughout Russia and the Soviet Republics in its quest for military and economic power.

    Jan 1, 1993

  • Report

    Ethiopia — Contrasts and Contradictions

    This paper, based on a presentation at the Georgetown University Intercultural Center, Washington, D.C., in September 1987, summarizes impressions of Ethiopia gained during a three-week visit in March 1987.

    Oct 1, 1987

  • Research Brief

    Moscow's Lessons from the 1982 Lebanon Air War

    Summary of research that reviews Soviet impressions of Israeli air operations during the 1982 Lebanon war.

    Jan 1, 1984

  • Report

    Moscow's Lessons from the 1982 Lebanon Air War

    Reviews Soviet impressions of Israeli air operations during the 1982 Lebanon war. It evaluates a 1983 article published in Soviet Air Force Monthly that assesses the implications of the Israeli-Syrian air battles.

    Jan 1, 1984

  • Report

    Organization of Research, Development, and Production in the Soviet Computer Industry

    An examination of Soviet computer research and development; the problems that plague the industry and the ways in which the government and Party have attempted to cope with them; and the constraints, incentives, and feedback mechanisms of the system acquisition process as they operate in a closely controlled, bureaucratic structure.

    Jan 1, 1976

  • Report

    Selective Nuclear Options in American and Soviet Strategic Policy

    Whatever behavior the Soviets might pursue in a nuclear crisis, the desirability of maintaining a U.S. selective options strategy need not hinge exclusively on the course and outcome of future developments in Soviet nuclear planning.

    Jan 1, 1976

  • Report

    Selective Nuclear Operations and Soviet Strategy

    Discusses Soviet doctrinal views on nuclear targeting restraint, the Soviet public reaction to the U.S. pursuit of limited nuclear options, and possible private Soviet attitudes regarding selective nuclear employment.

    Jan 1, 1975

  • Report

    Long-Term Competition with the Soviets: A Framework for Strategic Analysis

    A suggestion for a shift in focus on planning and programming U.S. strategic forces. Long-term analysis of the U.S.-Soviet competition should be concerned with both opponents, treating threats within that framework, searching for areas of possible U.S. advantage, and looking for weaknesses as well as strengths.

    Apr 1, 1972

  • Report

    Controversy in Soviet R&D: The Airship Case Study

    Discusses the controversy over modern dirigible development in the Soviet Union as a means of shedding light on Soviet R&D organization and decisionmaking.

    Jan 1, 1972