Europe

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From education, energy security, immigration, and health care to information technology, justice, and security policy, Europe faces myriad challenges in the 21st century. RAND research has long tackled similar problems facing the United States, and for 25 years, RAND Europe has applied its analytical expertise in these areas to public- and private-sector clients throughout Europe.

  • Vials of COVID-19 vaccine, photo by MarsBars/Getty Images

    Report

    COVID-19 'Vaccine Nationalism' Could Cost $1.2 Trillion a Year

    Oct 28, 2020

    Nationalistic behavior by governments may exclude some countries from access to COVID-19 vaccines. This could cost the world economy up to $1.2 trillion a year in GDP. A globally coordinated effort to fight the pandemic is key, not only from a public health perspective but also an economic one.

  • european flags on poles

    Project

    RAND Europe Improves Policy and Decision Making in Europe and Around the World

    Mar 1, 2018

    RAND Europe is an independent not-for-profit research institute dedicated to helping improve policy and decision making through research and analysis. With offices in the UK and Belgium, its research portfolio complements RAND's and also includes choice modeling, evaluation, workplace wellbeing, and much more.

Explore Europe

  • A Russian Mi-8 military helicopter is seen through a window while flying during a rehearsal for the Navy Day parade in Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 21, 2019, photo by Anton Vaganov/Reuters

    Report

    How Would NATO Compete with Russia?

    Western threat perceptions of Russia have risen sharply in recent years, bolstered by its acts of military aggression, political interference, and efforts to expand its global influence. What would be the strengths, weaknesses, and risks for the United States, NATO, and Russia in a large-scale war?

    Jun 22, 2021

  • Blog

    Stress Among U.S. Teachers, Russia's Global Interests, Investing in Equity: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on job-related stress among U.S. public school teachers, Russia's global interests, promoting social equity through infrastructure investments, and more.

    Jun 18, 2021

  • Medical doctor Makoto Kitada demonstrates a telemedicine application service.

    Multimedia

    Digital Technologies to Improve Health and Care

    John Campbell, Professor of General Practice and Primary Care at the University of Exeter, and Brandi Leach, Senior Analyst at not-for-profit research organisation RAND Europe, discuss how primary care practices can support patients to use digital services.

    Jun 18, 2021

  • U.S. and French soldiers at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany, March 2017, photo by U.S. Army

    Report

    Could France Support a U.S.-Led War in Eastern Europe?

    France has a greater range of capabilities than most other European militaries. It has remained strongly committed to NATO and bilateral defense cooperation with the United States. What capabilities might France bring to a high-intensity conventional war against Russia?

    Jun 16, 2021

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin holds a meeting via video link from the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia, December 21, 2020, photo by Alexei Nikolsky/Russian Presidential Press and Information Office/Reuters

    Commentary

    Russia Engine Troubles: Is Putin's Behavior Catching Up with Him?

    Actions taken to curb Russian malign activities around the globe appear to be affecting Russia's marine and aerospace engine sector. Efforts to arrest Russia's bad behavior might gain momentum if more countries followed the lead of Norway, which chose supporting sanctions over short-term economic gain.

    Jun 15, 2021

  • Russian President Putin addresses the audience during Moscow City Day celebrations in Moscow, Russia, September 5, 2020, photo by Sputnik/Alexei Druzhinin/Kremlin via Reuters

    Report

    Confronting a More Globally Active Russia

    For the last 25 years, Russia has been focused on regaining the ability to influence actions beyond its own region. Recognizing Russia's global interests could help the United States implement its own global strategy.

    Jun 15, 2021

  • Workers at the construction site of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline, near the town of Kingisepp, Leningrad region, Russia, June 5, 2019, photo by Anton Vaganov/Reuters

    Commentary

    Depoliticizing Russian Gas in Europe

    At their June 16 Summit in Geneva, Presidents Biden and Putin might consider how to reduce the sharp tensions over the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project. Cooperation among governments and companies may offer potential.

    Jun 11, 2021

  • Russian Mi-28N helicopters fly in formation at the Dubrovichi range near Ryazan, Russia, August 2, 2015, photo by Maxim Shemetov/Reuters

    Content

    Where Russia Markets and Sells Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Russia uses arms exports to further relations with other countries, influence their political and military leaders, and further its broader foreign and defense policy goals. A series of maps show the extent of its marketing, negotiating, and sales of key weapons systems.

    Jun 11, 2021

  • Russian Pantsir-SA missile and artillery weapon systems drive during the Victory Day Parade in Red Square in Moscow, Russia June 24, 2020, photo by Maxim Shemetov/Reuters

    Project

    Russia's Means of Global Influence

    Russia seeks to influence global policy through arms sales, the use of private military contractors, political interventions, social media and disinformation campaigns, and military force. A RAND project examines the workings of these levers of influence.

    Jun 11, 2021

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin attends his annual end-of-year news conference, held online in a video conference mode, at the Novo-Ogaryovo state residence outside Moscow, Russia December 17, 2020, photo by Sputnik/Alexei Nikolsky/Kremlin via Reuters

    Blog

    Summit a Chance to Clarify U.S.-Russia Relations

    RAND experts discuss possible topics of conversation and potential takeaways from the upcoming summit between the United States and Russia. The summit will be a chance to rebuild and review the countries' fraught relationship.

    Jun 10, 2021

  • Call with the Experts: The North Korean Nuclear Threat

    Multimedia

    RAND Experts Discuss the Biden-Putin Summit

    In this Call with the Experts podcast, Jeffrey Hiday, director of Media Relations at RAND, is joined by RAND experts Samuel Charap, Todd Helmus, Dara Massicot, and William Courtney. Together they discuss the June 16th summit between U.S. President Joe Biden and Russian President Vladimir Putin. This call was recorded on June 10, 2021.

    Jun 10, 2021

  • Blog

    Sexual Assault in the Military, School Security, Mental Health Care: RAND Weekly Recap

    This weekly recap focuses on the risk of sexual assault to sexual minorities in the U.S. military, making treatment more accessible to people struggling with opioid addiction, countering Russian propaganda, and more.

    Jun 4, 2021

  • Soldiers from the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers in flooded Staines-Upon-Thames, photo by Cpl Richard Cave LBPPA/Crown Copyright CC BY-NC 2.0

    Multimedia

    Expert Insights: Crisis Response in a Changing Climate

    In this audio conversation, Senior Analyst Lucia Retter is joined by Lieutenant General Richard Nugee, the non-executive director for climate change and sustainability for UK Defence, to discuss a study on the implications of climate change for UK defence logistics in crisis response situations.

    Jun 4, 2021

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks with Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy Admiral Vladimir Korolev at the Navy Day parade in St. Petersburg, Russia, July 30, 2017, photo by Alexander Zemlianichenko/Reuters

    Report

    Countering Russian and Other State-Sponsored Propaganda

    Since the Russian propaganda campaign that targeted the 2016 U.S. presidential election, researchers have penned a trove of reports that offer recommendations for countering such efforts. To help policymakers and others, RAND experts produced a compendium that divides these recommendations into various categories.

    Jun 1, 2021

  • Man with MS with his caregiver, photo by BanksPhotos/Getty Images

    Commentary

    The Informal Carers Who Help People with MS Need Support More Than Ever

    The trend within health care services toward remote care and self-management for people with multiple sclerosis has not included adequate support to carers. Greater investment to support the needs of carers could support the informal care they provide, as well as the carer as an individual.

    May 28, 2021

  • A laboratory classroom with a group of women science students working, photo by SolStock/Getty Images

    Commentary

    Culture, Performance, and Assessment in Research

    The unwritten, and often unsaid, concern in the debate about research culture in the UK is an apparent trade-off between excellence in research and a healthy research culture. But the evidence shows that this is a false dichotomy—high-performance research units are built on a strong, inclusive culture and an open and transparent set of values.

    May 25, 2021

  • Russia's President Vladimir Putin during a videoconference meeting with members of the Lomonosov Moscow State University Board of Trustees at the Novo-Ogaryovo residence, December 24, 2020, photo by Mikhail Klimentyev/Reuters

    Commentary

    Sanctions Targeting Russia's Defense Sector: Will They Influence Its Behavior?

    In response to recent Russian cyber espionage, interference in U.S. elections, and the poisoning of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, President Biden announced a new round of sanctions and expulsions of Russian officials. But will these sanctions hurt Russia's defense industry enough to curb the Kremlin's behavior?

    May 20, 2021

  • USS Connecticut submarine crew members after surfacing in the Arctic Circle during Ice Exercise, a biennial submarine exercise that promotes interoperability between allies and partners in Alaska, March 7, 2020, photo by Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Michael B. Zingaro/U.S. Navy

    Commentary

    Blinken's Arctic Opportunities

    Continued positive U.S. engagement in the Arctic Council could be important for balancing the influence of Russia and China, and in moving toward the Biden administration's climate change goals. Washington's new priority on climate change could be an issue that will now bind, rather than divide, Arctic states.

    May 19, 2021

  • U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd J. Austin III during a virtual meeting at the Pentagon, in Washington, D.C., May 5, 2021, photo by Chad McNeeley/U.S. Department of Defense

    Commentary

    It's Time to Drop 'Competition' in the National Defense Strategy

    What should the U.S. Defense Department do during peacetime if the United States is not competing with China and Russia? Simply put, it should prepare to win the next war, while defeating any military aggression below the threshold of conflict.

    May 18, 2021

  • Then vice president Joseph Biden shakes hands with Russian prime minister Vladmir Putin in 2011

    Journal Article

    Expanding the Scope for Statecraft in U.S. Russia Policy

    In the run-up to a summit between the United States and Russia, is it time to revisit core assumptions, and expand the scope for statecraft in U.S. Russia policy?

    May 18, 2021