An outline of a new epistemological approach to the inexact sciences, which include applied physical sciences such as engineering or medicine as well as most of the social sciences. The purpose of all sciences is to explain past events and to predict future events in an objective manner. In the exact sciences explanation and prediction have the same logical structure. However, in the inexact sciences specifically predictive instrumentalities in these fields and various mehtodological innovations must be considered. Among these are the systematic use of expert judgment and pseudoexperimentation, involving simulation processes and operational gaming.
Helmer-Hirschberg, Olaf and Nicholas H. Rescher, On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1958. https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P1513.html. Also available in print form.
Helmer-Hirschberg, Olaf and Nicholas H. Rescher, On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, P-1513, 1958. As of September 08, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P1513.html