An expanded version of a chapter entitled "A Note on Methodology," appearing in The Sino-Soviet conflict, 1956-1961, published by Princeton University Press. The Communist use of a figurative language for communicating with other Communists is discussed, together with the job of analyzing this Aesopian language. The paper outlines the limitations of the analyst and the advantages of the craft, and indicates where and how clues can be found in the open Communist media. Some examples of the way these clues can be used to unravel many of the political mysteries of the Communist world are given. The author stresses that effort should be made either to test significant hypotheses about Communist communications or to develop fruitful methods of research.