The influence of the Arctic pack ice on climate.

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An assessment of each component of the heat budgets of the surface and of the earth-atmosphere system in the central Arctic, for both an ice-covered and an ice-free ocean. The annual patterns of atmospheric heat loss for both conditions are obtained as residuals; the relation of these patterns to general atmospheric circulation and glacier accumulation is discussed. The paper shows that atmospheric cooling in the Arctic is closely related to certain indexes of atmospheric circulation. An ice-free Arctic Ocean would probably be associated with atmospheric circulation more vigorous in summer at sub-arctic latitudes and of comparable vigor in winter. The cool summers and warm, moist winters would be highly conducive to glacier growth. 17 pp. Bibliog.

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