An examination of the difficulties of simulating cognitive processes on computers. It reveals that the attempt to analyze intelligent behavior in digital computer language systematically excludes three fundamental human forms of information processing (fringe consciousness, essence/accident discrimination, and ambiguity tolerance). Moreover, of the four distinct types of intelligent activity, only two do not presuppose these human forms of information processing and can therefore be programmed. Significant developments in artificial intelligence in the remaining two areas must await an entirely different sort of computer. The only existing prototype for it is the little-understood human brain.
Dreyfus, Hubert L., Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1965. https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P3244.html. Also available in print form.
Dreyfus, Hubert L., Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, P-3244, 1965. As of July 28, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P3244.html