Solar Energy without Neutrinos : Fusion Catalysis by Quarks.

by Leona Marshall Libby, F. J. Thomas

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Negatively charged quarks and antiquarks may catalyze fusion in light elements. In build-up of the elements by quark catalysis the well-known difficulty at atomic number 5 does not occur. The solar energy output could be provided by quark catalysis of the alpha fusion reaction without production of neutrinos. The required abundance of quarks is about 10 exp (-33) per proton if there are no heavy elements inside the sun and is about 10 exp (-14) per proton if heavy element occurrence is like that in the solar system, about 10 exp (-5). In the latter case the reaction rate is strongly temperature dependent. (Prepared for publication in Nature.) 10 pp. Refs. (Authors)

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