Comparisons are presented of different methods of measuring ionospheric profiles of aeronomically vital parameters. Only comparisons involving closely simultaneous observations at closely the same location are included. Below 100 km, the radio rocket method appears to have the greatest accuracy. Nevertheless, the ground-based partial reflection and wave-interaction methods need to be developed for continuous observation of electron-density profiles. Above 100 km, satellite methods, particularly the topside ionosonde, are important for obtaining global coverage. For accuracy of measurement of electron-density, electron-temperature, ion-temperature, and other vital parameters, ground-based methods, especially the incoherent backscatter radar, are superior in the altitude range of 100-1000 km. 72 pp. Ref. (Authors)
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