Traditionally limited to war, gaming is now applied to business, urban, social, and other areas. Since all deal with confrontation between protagonists, "confrontation analysis" may be the appropriate term, with military gaming a branch concerned with military problems. Military gaming — from guerrilla to space warfare — is still modeled on World War II combat operations, with little attempt to introduce the nontechnical aspects. Computers have expanded gaming chronologically, geographically, and technically, standardizing inputs and simulation programs. Emphasis is not only on the model as a simulation tool, but also on the development of the micromodel, reaching toward the goal of variable resolution — i.e., gaming simultaneously at the lowest and highest level using submodels operated through an executive routine. Another trend moves away from outcomes toward performance-oriented gaming; as the measure of effectiveness under certain conditions gaming becomes a research tool rather than a training tool.
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