Ionospheric Probing with Long Wavelength Radio Waves.

by Cullen M. Crain

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A survey of ionospheric probing techniques using long wavelength radio waves. This paper deals with techniques of probing with ground-based facilities and frequencies in the range from about 10 Hz to 100 Hz (ELF, VLF, and LF portions of the spectrum). At these frequencies, measurements involve one or more parameters of a radio signal such as amplitude, phase, transmission, time, and polarization as received at locations near or at distances from a radiation source. The interpretation of vertical or steep incidence data is not yet a straightforward well-defined procedure, and much investigation remains to be done. Discussion covers current status and the capabilities and limitations of present probing methods, and suggests improvements for added capabilities. 25 pp. Bibliog. (KB)

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