An analysis of Peruvian military structure, history, its role since the 1968 military takeover of government, and the military's relations with the United States before and after assuming political control of the country. The author suggests the latter relationship may have proved counterproductive to U.S. interests; historically conditioned to view the Peruvian military as "politically reactionary, militarily irrelevant, and economically wasteful," the United States has failed to note the breakdown of historical military conservatism. Military and political dimensions of U.S. policy alternatives are discussed. It is concluded that extremes of partisan involvement or outright rejection of the military in government be avoided. 51 pp.