Description of the evolution of changed military and political views in Peru, both theory and practice. This paper considers doctrines of the national war college and other Peruvian military schools. It analyzes the influence of guerrilla campaigns from 1965 to 1966 and conflicts with U.S. private oil companies concerning the decision to seize power and reshape Peruvian society through agrarian reform, economic nationalism, and authoritarian military rule. A review of the controversy over relationships between military institutions and revolution suggests the conclusion that change in Latin America will probably come from within traditional institutions (the military and the church) rather than outside them. It is not yet clear, however, whether this change will be uniform or successful; whether it will be considered revolutionary or not is largely a matter of definition. 15 pp. Ref.