Assesses relative economic roles of U.S. and Soviet women, emphasizing science and technology. Effective utilization of women in all sectors of the labor force was a predominant factor in the USSR's rise to a major world power. Unlike U.S. women, Soviet women are rather evenly distributed throughout all fields and levels, including politics and the judiciary. However, they hold only 34 percent of all positions of authority and have won 24 percent of the Lenin Prizes. Soviet doctors and dentists are 72 percent women. The United States' 9 percent seems to be the lowest rate in the world (and a third of those are foreign trained). Engineering is 28 percent to 1.6 percent women. Employment of Soviet womanpower, necessary because of huge wartime loss of men, is holding steady as the sex ratio approaches equality. Since the participation of U.S. women is gradually increasing, the two systems may converge in this respect. U.S. science and technology needs women not for mere numbers but for additional high-quality brainpower. 72 pp. Bibliog.
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