The Simulation of Arctic Climate with a Global General Circulation Model.
A two-level global circulation model is used to simulate the Arctic climate for both January and July. From separate month-long simulations, the summer and winter distributions of pressure, surface air temperature, precipitation, and cloudiness north of 50 N are compared with the corresponding observed fields. While the model's results bear an overall resemblance to observation, a number of errors are noted: the model's January surface air temperatures are too high, the summer rainfall is too low over the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans, and the cloudiness is much too low over the entire region. These are attributed primarily to the model's inadequate treatment of the surface boundary layer and low-level marine convection. The need for further climatological observations in the Arctic is also recognized. 40 pp. Ref.