A discussion of the challenges and problems encountered in classroom organization changes that seek to redefine assumptions about children and learning that underlie traditional methods. Observations of five Title III projects at five school districts showed that organization changes are exceedingly complex: they require new attitudes, roles, and behavior on the part of teachers and administrators and involve such innovations as open education, multiage grouping, the integrated day, differentiated staffing, and team teaching. But their very lack of specificity may contribute to success. Success depends largely on (1) the motivations of key personnel during project initiation; and (2) the selection of implementation strategies that foster mutual adaptation and "learning-by-doing." Says the author: "Successful implementation ... is neither an automatic nor a certain process ... strategies ... work together, in concert, to promote adaptation and change." 15 pp. Ref.