Cover: Toward More Effective Use of Expert Opinion

Toward More Effective Use of Expert Opinion

Preliminary Investigation of Participatory Polling for Long-Range Planning

Published 1976

by Harold Sackman


Download eBook for Free

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 2.8 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.


Purchase Print Copy

 Format Price
Add to Cart Paperback81 pages $25.00

The technique of participatory polling was developed for a prototype trial in response to the need for long-range R&D planning requiring the opinions, assumptions, and values of planners and decisionmakers. Currently used techniques, such as Delphi, suffer from numerous limitations. This polling technique has five key features: (1) iterative polling, (2) participant-interpreted reasons for responses, (3) evaluation of the interpretations of others, (4) quantitative and qualitative group feedback, and (5) formal questionnaire design and analysis. The paper describes the application of this technique at Rand to a sample of 10 experts on long-range R&D planning for the close air support mission in the Air Force. The resulting data were computed in a three-way analysis of variance consisting of three main effects and their associated interactions. Results for the expert opinions were generally credible and internally consistent. Formal experimental procedures were explicit, replicable, and amenable to quantitative analyses, and the associated measures were statistically reliable.

This report is part of the RAND paper series. The paper was a product of RAND from 1948 to 2003 that captured speeches, memorials, and derivative research, usually prepared on authors' own time and meant to be the scholarly or scientific contribution of individual authors to their professional fields. Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.