This program is concerned with both long-term solutions and short-term actions to improve the operational effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Air Force. Originally concentrating on problems caused by conversion to the all-volunteer force, the program now is expanded to be responsive to a wide range of Air Force manpower problems. Recent studies: (1) Analyses of recruitment for Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve. (2) Study of the Air Force health delivery system and how to conserve the scarce physician resource. (3) Manpower planning models such as junior officer retention/planning model, a dynamic retirement simulation model, and a functional area model. (4) Field testing the MODIA (Method of Developing Instructional Alternatives) planning system, and preparing for the phase II evaluation of MODIA. (5) Analyzing the use of maintenance specialties to support tactical aircraft, and finding ways to promote efficiency. (6) Evaluation of training for F-111D avionics maintenance, and improvements to stress hands-on practical training.