Cover: Desegregation and black achievement

Desegregation and black achievement

Published 1977

by Robert L. Crain, Rita E. Mahard

Purchase Print Copy

 Format Price
Add to Cart Paperback54 pages $23.00

Reviews 73 studies of effect of desegregation on black achievement. A majority conclude that desegregation has a beneficial effect on black achievement test scores. This agrees with various national surveys that have found black achievement higher in predominantly white schools. However, a number of studies have not found higher black test scores after desegregation. Partly this is due to methodology as the weaker studies are less likely to find positive effects. But it also seems that certain desegregation plans are less likely to have positive effects. Desegregation is noticeably more likely to have a positive impact on black test scores if it begins in the earliest grades, and effects are especially likely to be positive for first graders. One other finding is suggested: voluntary desegregation plans are less likely to yield positive results than mandatory plans.

This report is part of the RAND paper series. The paper was a product of RAND from 1948 to 2003 that captured speeches, memorials, and derivative research, usually prepared on authors' own time and meant to be the scholarly or scientific contribution of individual authors to their professional fields. Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.