Six scales were constructed from a 22-item adaptation of Dupuy's General Well-Being (GWB) questionnaire: Anxiety, Depression, Self-Control, Positive Well-Being, General Health, and Vitality. Reliability and validity were studied for 1209 enrollees (ages 14 to 75) in the Dayton, Ohio, site of the Health Insurance Study (HIS). Associations among the six HIS-GWB scales and 22 other health status and health-related variables (e.g., chronic functional limitations, chronic diseases, physical abilities, general health perceptions, work adjustment, life stress, health habits, patient satisfaction) were factor analyzed to test construct validity in relation to physical, mental and social components of health. Findings strongly support the validity of HIS-GWB Anxiety, Depression, Self-Control and Positive Well-Being scales as measures of mental health. General Health and Vitality scales failed discriminant tests of validity. Revisions made prior to fielding the HIS-GWB in other HIS sites are described.