Third World states devote considerable resources to military ends but the input of resources does not accurately translate into outputs in terms of military effectiveness. Lags in technological sophistication and organizational competence serve as impediments to the development of capable forces. Drawing on RAND research on military modernization in the Middle East, this paper discusses demographic, economic, political and socio/cultural barriers to the attainment of competence and suggests policies which may help in reducing the barrier.
Pascal, Anthony H., Are Third World Armies Third Rate? Human Capital and Organizational Impediments to Military Effectiveness. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1980. https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6433.html.
Pascal, Anthony H., Are Third World Armies Third Rate? Human Capital and Organizational Impediments to Military Effectiveness, RAND Corporation, P-6433, 1980. As of September 12, 2023: https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6433.html