Occupational desegregation in CETA programs: the record for female and male Hispanic, white, and Black participants
Examines the occupational distributions in the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) and the wage implications of these distributions for men and women of different racial and ethnic origins. This paper (1) describes CETA's legal structure; (2) describes the database used; (3) shows how the CETA title under which individuals entered CETA and their CETA activity affect their occupational options; (4) documents CETA's occupational desegregation record for white, black, and hispanic women; and, (5) shows the wage consequences of women's occupational distributions in CETA. It is concluded that race and ethnicity play a relatively minor role in determining occupational distribution in CETA, but that major differences exist by sex. Women were more likely to enter CETA under titles that provided basic education, job training, and work experience, and less likely to get public service jobs. Furthermore, CETA wages were consistently lower for women than for men in the same occupation, in the same CETA service, or in the same traditionality category.