Threat electronic countermeasures (ECM) training is instruction in the measures taken to continue the effective employment of a radio frequency fire control system despite the threat's attempts to disrupt its operation. This paper describes the inadequacy of current threat ECM training, compares alternative training methods, and recommends ways the Air Force can improve threat ECM training. One suggested method is contracted training flight service (CTFS) using modified Lear jets to simulate airborne threat ECM. Operational and training pods are another training tool for simulating an airborne threat. Other alternatives include expanding CTFS with ground jammer waveforms, injecting ECM waveforms into the airborne fire control radar, and reserving memory space in the advanced tactical fighter and advanced tactical attack aircraft for threat ECM training programs. The authors conclude that the problem is not the lack of adequate simulators, but rather the low priority assigned to threat ECM training.