U.S.-Russian relations are poised to resume their drift toward mutual alienation in the face of NATO enlargement. Failure to halt the downward spiral soon will jeopardize arms control regimes and erode U.S.-Russian nonproliferation cooperation. If relations are to improve, the initiative will have to come from the American side. The authors state that the United States should broaden the context of enlargement so as to emphasize Russia's legitimate security interests and a role in managing European security. It should pursue an agreement on a NATO-Russian charter to institutionalize NATO-Russian security concerns. If some of the heat can be taken out of the NATO enlargement issue, it is possible the Russian leadership might come to support START II if modifications and incentives were forthcoming. The authors suggest a variety of ways to fix the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty to lower ceiling levels. The goal should be to move quickly, recognizing that June-July will bring the enlargement invitations.