Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves Through Normal and Disturbed Ionospheres

by Henry G. Booker, Cullen M. Crain, E. C. Field


Download eBook for Free

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 0.6 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.


Purchase Print Copy

 FormatList Price Price
Add to Cart Paperback34 pages $20.00 $16.00 20% Web Discount

Calculations of expected total transmission attenuation are presented for earth-to-satellite paths in an ambient and a nominally disturbed ionosphere under both day and night conditions for frequencies from 10 to the minus 3rd power to 10 to the 10th power Hz. Height profiles of attenuation are given for frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. Results show that, under ambient conditions and for quasi-longitudinal propagation, the ionosphere is relatively transparent to electromagnetic waves having frequencies lower than about 10 kHz. For some classes of artificially or naturally disturbed ionospheres, frequencies lower than a few tens of Hz must be used if less than 30-dB transmission loss is to be avoided. Another possible scheme would be to use several satellites configured so as to maximize the probability that at least one satellite is transmitting under undisturbed ionospheric conditions. Part of the propagation path is thus assumed to be in the earth's ionosphere cavity.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Report series. The report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1948 to 1993 that represented the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research.

Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.