Planning-Programming-Budgeting in State Government

Some Lessons Learned

by L. A. Dougharty


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A critical examination of some of the problems involved in implementing planning, programming, and budgeting (PPB) in state government. Experience resulting from RAND's assistance to the Arkansas Planning Commission in the development of a PPB system for the State is used to illustrate the issues involved in the relationship between governmental characteristics and appropriate PPB design. The report covers the structural, analytical, and informational parts of PPB as well as the role of the legislature in the PPB process. It is concluded that there is more than one possible and desirable form of PPB; the particular design choice will depend on the information requirements of the decisionmaker and the resources available for planning and analysis. A governmental agency's imitation of other PPB designs without regard to its own capabilities can seriously impair the effectiveness of its PPB system.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Report series. The report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1948 to 1993 that represented the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research.

This research in the public interest was supported by RAND, using discretionary funds made possible by the generosity of RAND's donors, the fees earned on client-funded research, and independent research and development (IR&D) funds provided by the Department of Defense.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.