In the near term, technological improvements cannot alone solve severe air-pollution or energy-consumption problems in urban transportation. Transportation management controls--such as expanded or improved bus service, carpooling incentives, and gasoline surtax or rationing policies--are also needed to reduce travel by low-occupancy auto (the predominant emission source and energy consumer for urban transportation) by causing people to switch their trips to carpools or buses, or to forgo some of their trips entirely. The model described in this report estimates the effect of various transportation management strategies on the quantity, quality, and cost of transportation service--and the associated emissions or energy consumption.
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