Strategy Alternatives for Oxidant Control in the Los Angeles Region
This project sought to evaluate strategies for controlling oxidant (smog) in Los Angeles and to investigate their sensitivity to assumptions. Promising strategies for fixed sources, vehicle retrofit and inspection/maintenance, and transportation management were identified and compared. (Transportation management strategies include bus-system improvements, carpooling incentives, and gasoline surtaxes or rationing.) Superior combinations were formed and then evaluated in terms of their various environmental, transportational, economic, and energy impacts on Los Angeles. This process was repeated with five alternative levels for the oxidant standard (including National-Primary, California standard and health-advisory-alert levels) in combination with four alternative sets of technical assumptions (emission factors, etc.), thereby showing how superior strategy composition and the resulting impacts vary with these factors. The costs of not meeting present standards are discussed, and certain EPA-promulgated technical assumptions are recommended for reevaluation. The project's comprehensive analysis methodology (also applicable to energy-conservation and transportation-improvement problems) is described.