Compares the effects of countercyclical Public Works and Public Service Employment programs on: (1) job creation; (2) speed of job creation; (3) distribution of benefits among regions, industries, occupations, and socioeconomic groups; (4) value of services provided; (5) program participants; (6) transition from public to private employment; and (7) demand for labor and materials. The findings suggest that both types of programs are equally slow to enact and may have little stimulative effect on the economy. However, the two programs differ in their targeting on those regions, industries, occupations, and socioeconomic groups most affected by a national recession. The policy and program design implications of these and other findings are discussed. 140 pp. Bibliog.