Soviet energy R&D : goals, planning, and organizations
Principal strategic considerations governing Soviet energy R&D goals are regional imbalance in conventional resources, justifying high priority for nuclear power in the European parts of the Soviet Union; continued heavy reliance on expansion of Siberian oil and gas, requiring improved technology in exploration, production and transport; and increased emphasis on the low quality coal of the East, calling for improvements in stripmining technology, coal conversion, and transport. An inventory of the network of R&D organizations permits estimation of total energy R&D expenditures and allocations which are quite large compared with those in the United States, although environmental and safety considerations are almost completely ignored. The Soviet Union apparently spends fewer resources on nuclear and five times more on fossil-fuel programs. Much R&D effort is poorly focused on real innovation. Poor orientation to client needs and inertial programming explain the failure of large outlays to produce rapid technological innovation.