A new epistemological approach to the inexact sciences, which include applied physical sciences, such as engineering and medicine, as well as most of the social sciences. The purpose of all science is to explain past events and to predict future ones in an objective manner. While explanation and prediction have the same logical structure in the exact sciences, this is not so in the inexact sciences. This fact leads to the development of specifically predictive instrumentalities in these fields and to various methodological innovations. Among these are the systematic employment of expert judgment and the use of pseudoexperimentation, involving simulation processes, and in particular, operational gaming.
Helmer-Hirschberg, Olaf and Nicholas H. Rescher, On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1960. https://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R353.html. Also available in print form.
Helmer-Hirschberg, Olaf and Nicholas H. Rescher, On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, R-353, 1960. As of October 06, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R353.html